Knowledge Base



A/B Test

A simple linear method of testing two variations of a single variable to determine the winner, popularized by direct mail, telemarketing, and CTA/subject line testing. 

LiveIntent uses the most advanced optimization technology, Machine Learning, to ensure that every single person gets the most appropriate ad, based on the advertiser’s goal, every time. We have the only ad server capable of reliably changing the ad creative and click URL in real-time in email, which facilitates the efficiency of Machine Learning’s confident and sophisticated multivariable analysis.


API stands for “Application Program Interface,” and it is simply the joining of two software systems.

Ad Banner

Also called "Banner Ad" or "Banner," this is a static graphic image (GIF or JPEG file) or interactive content (like flash files) used to display an ad unit on a website. Most banners enable users to click on an ad to be redirect to another website.

Ad Exchange

Ad exchanges provide a sales channel to publishers and ad networks, as well as aggregated inventory to advertisers. They bring a technology platform that facilitates automated auction based pricing and buying in real-time.

Ad Network

Ad networks provide an outsourced sales capability for publishers and a means to aggregate inventory and audiences from numerous sources in a single buying opportunity for media buyers. Ad networks may provide specific technologies to enhance value to both publishers and advertisers, including unique targeting capabilities, creative generation, and optimization. Ad networks’ business models and practices may include features that are similar to those offered by ad exchanges.

Ad Server

An Ad server is a computer application that enables the delivery, tracking and management of advertising content on publisher inventory.

Ad Tag

Software code that an advertiser provides to a publisher or ad network that calls the advertisers ad server for the purposes of displaying an advertisement.

Aggregate Campaign Data

Data combined from several advertising campaigns to create a segment where campaign level data is not identifiable.


A single piece of information known about a user and stored in a behavioral profile which may be used to match ad content to users. Attributes consist of demographic information (e.g., age, gender, geographical location), segment or cluster information (e.g., auto enthusiast), and retargeting information (e.g., visited Site X two days ago). Segment or cluster information is derived from the user’s prior online activities (e.g., pages visited, content viewed, searches made and clicking and purchasing behaviors). Generally, this is anonymous data (non-PII).

Audience Measurement 

The counting of unique users (i.e. audience) and their interaction with online content. At a campaign level, this service is conducted by a third party to validate that a publisher delivered what an advertiser had requested. At the industry level, this service enables media buyers to understand which brokers of online content to negotiate with to reach a specific audience.

Audience Targeting

A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors based on their shared behavioral, demographic, and/or geographic attributes. Audience targeting uses anonymous, non-PII data.


Behavioral Targeting

Using previous online user activity (e.g., pages visited, content viewed, searches, clicks and purchases) to generate a segment which is used to match advertising creative to users (sometimes also called Behavioral Profiling, Interest-based Advertising, or online behavioral advertising). Behavioral targeting uses anonymous, non-PII data.


An entity that competes in real-time auctions to acquire impressions


A list of IP addresses and/or domains that are not allowed access into particular networks.  By being blacklisted, the sender’s emails may bounce and/or get rejected


Click URL

The URL stored in LiveIntent’s database that directs a user to an advertiser’s website on a click.

Contextual Data

Data that's commonly based on the device ID or IP address and is determined at the time the ad is loaded.

Contextual Targeting

Targeting content that deals with specific topics, as determined by a contextual scanning technology.

Conversion Goal

The measurement of some action an individual user has done on your site.

Conversion Rate

The percent of viewers that take action after clicking compared to all users who were exposed to an online ad. 

Cookie Matching

A method of enabling data appending by linking one company's user ID to another company's user ID.


Cookies are bits of HTML code that store anonymous information on online users. However, these are tied to devices and browsers – not people – making them ineffective at matching people across such devices and browsers. Cookies are also short-lived, as they expire after a certain period of time and because people have the ability to clear their cookies (browser history).

LiveIntent uses cookies as well as people-based marketing. We use them to target people based on past searches, clicks, and buys, but use a hash to do the tracking via hashed email address. It is another way for us to help marketers to reach people everywhere. While it is more consistent to use CRM data, cookies have the ability to target people immediately. LiveIntent has advertisers who place pixels on a website and then they get retargeted from our company, as a cookie is a pixel placed on a website.

CPA (Cost Per Action)

This strategy purchases ad space based on the likelihood of a specific action and pays out upon completion of that action.

Best For: Driving Conversions, Sales, Sign-Ups and Submissions

CPC (Cost Per Click)

This strategy purchases ad space based on the likelihood of the ad being “clicked” and pays out upon completion of each click.

Best For: Driving Site Traffic and Measuring Engagement

CPM (Cost Per Thousand Impressions)

This strategy purchases ad space based on the number of impressions served, which equals the number of times the ad is loaded.

Best For: Increasing Brand Awareness, Driving Site Traffic and Conversions, Sales, Sign-ups and Submissions.


Creatives are finalized ads.

A clear creative sets expectations and inspires action. For best practices on creative — like clear messaging and  distinct call to action — check out our article here

Creative Retargeting

A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors that previously were exposed to or interacted with the advertisers’ creative.

Creative Type

Within the LiveIntent UI, you can choose designated type of a creative. These include:

  • Standard IAB
  • Marquee (for premium opportunities)
  • Custom (for direct sold custom ad units)

CRM Retargeting

“CRM” stands for Customer Relationship Management.

“Retargeting” refers to the process of targeting a person with messaging that is based on that specific person’s past behavior or purchase history.

“CRM retargeting” refers to using a brand’s online and offline CRM data (like email addresses) to match specific customers to specific messaging in third party media, across all devices (laptop, mobile device, tablet), all in real-time. 

LiveIntent has a CRM Retargeting tool called LiveAudience – which makes it possible to match specific customers with specific ads whenever they open content sent by one of our publishers.


Data Management Platform (DMP)

A Data Management Platform (DMP) takes in, sorts, and stores information. This is very useful for marketers, publishers, and other businesses as it is a simplified way of accessing data. DMP is primarily used to manage cookie IDs to generate ads to a specific audience, which can then be transferred to their DSP to track ad buying decisions. DMPs can also help with supply-side platforms in helping them sell their ads.

Is LiveIntent a DMP?
No. While LiveIntent is not a DMP, we integrate with them, allowing mutual clients to easily target the data from the DMP when buying on LiveIntent.

Declared Data

These are actual pieces of information volunteered or disclosed by the user. These are often derived from actions such as a user filling out site registration information. Declared data are much more reliable than inferred data since the users are directly sharing information about themselves, eliminating the need to make educated guesses.

Demand-Side Platform (DSP)

Demand-Side Platforms (DSPs) decide which impressions an advertiser should buy across various exchanges via real-time bidding. This process takes place in milliseconds, allowing advertisers to efficiently and cost-effectively reach users that meet their specific targeting criteria across many different types of inventory. You can learn more about the DSPs we work with on our partners page.

Is LiveIntent a DSP?
Yes. LiveIntent functions as a DSP for brands to buy impressions based on specific criteria across thousands of different email newsletters. LiveIntent is also integrated with several DSPs, including Google’s DoubleClick Bid Manager (DBM), MediaMath, Digilant and SiteScout, as an inventory source.

Demographic Retargeting

A method that allows advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors based on demographic information, including:age, gender and income.


DKIM (Domain Keys Identified Mail) attaches an identifier to a message and uses cryptographic techniques to validate authorization for its presence.  Think of a public/private key pair for authentication.  If you are using an Email Service Provider, they will typically provide you with a DKIM TXT record to apply to your domain’s DNS entry.  DKIM is essential to any email program and is also required for they Yahoo feedback loop program.


DMARC (Domain-Based Message Authentication, Reporting & Conformance) standardizes how email receivers perform email authentication using SPF and DKIM mechanisms. 

A DMARC policy allows a sender to indicate that their emails are protected by SPF and/or DKIM, and tells a receiver what to do if neither of those authentication methods passes - such as junk or reject the message.  DMARC also provides a way for the email receiver to report back to the sender about messages that pass and/or fail DMARC evaluation.  This means that senders will experience consistent authentication results for their messages at AOL, Gmail, Hotmail, Yahoo!, and any other email receiver implementing DMARC.


DNS, or a Domain Name System, can be thought of as the Yellow Pages for the Internet. 

DNS distributes the responsibility of assigning domain names and mapping those names to IP addresses by designating authoritative name servers for each domain.  Every time you use a domain name, a DNS service must translate the name into the corresponding IP address.



The eCPA, or Effective Cost Per Action, is calculated by taking the total amount of media spend and dividing it by the number of actions.

Email Address Hash 

An irreversible encrypted version of an email address used to keep the user’s email address private.

Email Authentication 

IP and domain authentication is your “passport” to the Inbox.  Essentially, authentication verifies that you are allowed to send using your sending IP address and sending domain.  Authentication helps prevent phishing and spoofing of your domain, and it lets your recipients know you have taken the precautions of using IP and domain authentication.


An ESP, or Email Service Provider, is a company that offers email services. Companies often hire an ESP company to distribute their content out to their email list and can do things like track of the status of each email address that is attached to a specific email list. ESP servers also have the ability to categorize an address list based on interests groups and categories. This can allow companies to target certain addresses that would value the content more than others.

Is LiveIntent an ESP?
No, LiveIntent does not send the email, our LiveTags are in emails sent out by ESP companies looking to sell that inventory. ESPs that are “LiveCertified” are ones we have worked with to ensure our LiveTags are properly implemented and tested.


Feedback Loop

A feedback loop is when an ISP forwards recipients’ complaints to the organization that sent the email.  Typically, this is sent back to the Email Service Provider that sent the email.  Not all ISPs and networks maintain a feedback loop, but it is important to get signed up with all that are available.  If you use an ESP, they will typically take care of this on your behalf. 

First-Party Data

This is data a publisher collects directly through their site – which could be derived from behaviors, actions, interests, subscriptions, and more – making first-party data exclusive to the publisher and highly valued. The data are gathered through cookies, pixels from SSPs/DSPs, or a pixel from an integrated DMP.

Frequency Cap Count

The limit on the amount of times a certain user will see an ad from a specific advertiser. The advertiser itself will dictate this cap when stipulating a budget and campaign.

Frequency Cap Period

The amount of time a frequency cap is in effect for users, as stipulated by the advertiser.


Geographic Targeting

A method that allows advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors based on demographic information, including age, gender and income. This information may come from site-registration data, or an inference-based mechanism.


The optimization of a campaign’s pricing strategy to maximize campaign effectiveness. These types are:

  • CPC (cost per click)
  • CPA (cost per action)
  • MaxCTR (max click-thru rate)
  • CPM (cost per million impressions)

Gross eCPM

The gross cost per million impressions on the LiveIntent Platform for all ad slot being bought. This excludes dedicated sales.


Hard Bounce

This bounce rejection reason from the recipient’s mail server indicates a permanent delivery failure.  Retried delivery attempts will not be successful.  An example of a hard bounce would be a bad email address. 


A hexadecimal code created by an algorithm that represents a unique, de-identified piece of data – like an email address. It’s completely anonymous and secure, yet persistent, so the hashed email data from one company can be matched to the hashed email data for another company – but neither can reverse the hashes back to the original email addresses.

For instance, LiveIntent receives a list of email hash’s from The New York Times, but will never see the actual email addresses from The New York Times.

Sample Hash: transfers to dc5hg68hj8jkf9f5fdsh8jo96g4fhf5d



A single display of online content to a user’s web-enabled device. An online advertisement impression is a single appearance of an advertisement on a web page. Each time an advertisement loads onto a users screen, the ad server may count that loading as one impression. However, the ad server may be programmed to exclude from the count certain non-qualifying activity such as a reload, internal user actions, and other events that the advertiser and ad serving company agreed to not count.


The aggregate number of opportunities near publisher content to display advertisement to visitors.

Inferred Data

These are audience characteristics that have been based on educated guesses. For example, if a user is browsing for pregnancy tips, we might infer that this user is pregnant and label them as an expectant mother. While inferred data can be helpful, it is not as accurate or reliable as declared data.


An IO, or 'Insertion Order,' is a necessary contract for both advertisers and publishers begin LiveIntent begins any sort of business. Campaigns are organized within an IO.

IP Address

A number assigned to each computer, network device, or network in order to distinguish each network interface and networked device.  Marketers also use an IP address, or multiple IP addresses to send out email campaigns.


An ISP, or Internet Service Provider, provides access to the Internet and normally provides the user an email address associated with that provider. 

Comcast is an example of an ISP.



Key-Value Pairs

Key-Value Pairs allow publishers to define their own targeting criteria based on first-party data specific to its subscribers or newsletters

For example: Registration information collected from client’s users, or users’ most recent search topic.

To learn more about key-value pairs and other direct selling capabilities on LiveIntent, check out this article.



LiveAudience is LiveIntent's CRM retargeting solution. Unlike cookie retargeting, LiveAudience works across all devices by using the hashed versions of email addresses. 


LiveSense is LiveIntent’s technology that enables ads to be served only when there’s a high-intent prediction of a user engaging – improving value for both buyers and sellers.


The LiveTag is LiveIntent's proprietary software, helping clients both buy and sell ads in email.


LiveTags per email open 


Machine Learning

Machine Learning is the process of selecting the best or most predictive element(s) or data point(s) from a wide selection of information


Also known as ESPs (Email Service Providers), mailers offer marketing and newsletter services.


32-character irreversible encryption advertisers use to keep their user’s email addresses private. 


Data that provides information about other data. This includes descriptions of the characteristics of information, such as quality, origin, context, content and structure.




Out-of-Session Data

Also called 'non-session data,' this is information that can't be collected from the current, single event of a visitor.



The rate at which budget should be spent; options on the LiveIntent Platform include:

  • ASAP: spend as much as soon as possible
  • Even: spend even amounts daily
  • Unlimited: spend undetermined amounts without a time frame

People-Based Marketing

This is marketing to people, not pixels – which basically means targeting login IDs and not cookies. By targeting a unique hashed, login ID, you can reach a real person no matter what device they’re on, because that hashed login ID remains the same everywhere they access a people-based platform – something cookies can’t do.

For Example: If a person uses a particular email address to log-into Facebook and Twitter on a laptop, they will use the same email address on their mobile device or tablet. If that email addressed is hashed, it can be used to safely identify and match that person with a brand’s messaging without having to rely on cookies or pixels.


PII, or Personally Identifiable Information, is any data that could potentially identify a specific individual 


A pixel is a small, hidden image tag within a webpage or newsletter that runs code once it has been “viewed”. LiveIntent uses conversion pixels (to track conversions completed by users) and retargeting pixels (to build an audience for the advertiser).


Programmatic refers to an array of technologies that automate the buying, placement and optimization of media inventory. Essentially, programmatic is using machines to buy ads. This is beneficial because it’s easier, faster, and saves us time as a machine is the one doing the primary work. Programmatic is also more efficient on spend, since you’re only paying on an impression by impression basis and in a way that drives toward your goal through different pricing strategies.



Reporting Metrics

Different values you can use to measure the performance of your campaign. A full list of LiveIntent's metrics can be found here. 

Reporting Splits 

Dimensions you can use to slice and dice your report. LiveIntent's full list of splits can be found here

Reverse DNS

This is the resolution of an IP address to its designated domain name.  Having Reverse DNS set up is essential for email deliverability. 

TIP: A free tool to check the Reverse DNS on your IP can be found here -


RPO is Revenue Per Thousand Opens.

It is a metric used to understand the value of the ad units in your newsletter template. While RPO may seem like a new, different metric, it is really just a way of condensing two familiar measurements: Cost Per Thousand Impressions (CPM), and Ad Tags Per Open (which we refer to as “LiveTags Per Open “LPO).

Check out our blog post, "Increasing Revenue from Your Email Inventory: A New Metric for Success," to find out more on why RPO is important.


RTB stands for “Real-Time Bidding” which is a form of programmatic buying that takes the form of an automated auction based on the available data about the person at the moment the ad is served.

LiveIntent supports RTB. We use RTB to bid on our own inventory and have built our own bidder, similar to external bidders. LiveIntent bids on our own impressions and inventory.


Second-Party Data

This is data that’s first-party data to someone else. DMPs and other technology providers now offer matching services, where advertisers and publishers can slot their cookies and the DMP can come back with unique identifiers for the conjoined data. Publishers can also attempt such deals with other publishers to enrich targeting pools for advertisers.


Also called a 'Data Segment' or 'Audience,' this is a set of users who share one or more similar attributes.

Sender Score

The Sender Score is an indication of the trustworthiness of an email sender’s IP address and is used by email providers and filters to determine additional email filtering criteria.  Just like a credit score is used by financial institutions to decide the terms of a loan, email providers use the Sender Score to determine the terms for filtering your emails.

Site Targeting

A targeting methods that allows advertisers to show ads specifically to previous site visitors when they're on third-party sites.

Soft Bounce

A soft bounce occurs when there's a temporary delivery issue — such as a full inbox — which results in transient delivery failure.  Retried delivery attempts may be successful. 


Not sunscreen, but a term used for an email validation system designed to detect email spoofing by providing a mechanism to allow receiving mail exchangers to check that incoming mail from a domain is being sent from a host authorized by that domain's administrators.  If you are using an ESP, they will typically provide you with a SPF TXT record to apply to your domain’s DNS entry.

Supply-Side Platform (SSP)

Supply-Side Platforms (SSPs) assist publishers in selling their advertising space in an automated fashion. By connecting publishers' inventory to various exchanges, DSPs, and more, SSPs offer publishers a large range of potential buyers – which help to maximize the revenues they receive for their inventory.

LiveIntent has SSP capabilities, in the sense that our publishers use our platform to easily sell and manage their email inventory.


Third-Party Data

This is data that’s collected, aggregated, and sold by a service provider or tech company. This is usually an easier, more cost-effective option than first-party data or second-party data providers; however, the data is often considered less accurate.

Third-Party Data Provider

A company that collects, then resells, segmented data so it's actionable for an advertiser.

Tracking URL

A URL that counts clicks and traffic on an ad image. This URL can span multiple image URLs; sometimes ads will have two tracking URLs.


User Registration Data

Information gathered as part of a registration process. User registration data is used for many purposes, including but not limited to establishing an identity to be used to access the same web site in the future. User registration data may range from simply a username & password, or can be as extensive as the user's name, address, phone number, gender, income, education and other demographic information.



The set of interactions between a user and website. 



Also known as Plug-ins, these are programs or tools that allow users to view, search, play or take another action, separate from a typical webpage. 


A list of IP addresses and/or domains that are allowed into a particular network.  By being whitelisted, the sender also bypasses typical “checks” designed to quarantine emails. 




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